The aim of this module is to provide students with knowledge about history, principles, subjects, the regulation of main areas of international law and human rights, an overview of the fundamentals of international relations and to introduce the techniques of academic writing and the methodology of legal research.This module is obligatory for all students.
The student who has completed the module:
The aim of the course is to give general knowledge of the basic principles and main branches of international law. International law is traditionally concerned with inter-State relations, but nowadays it involves likewise international organisations and to lesser extent also natural and legal persons. The course gives general knowledge of the basic principles and main branches of international law (jurisdiction and immunity, responsibility, peaceful settlement of disputes, law of treaties, consular and diplomatic law, maritime law, human rights and use of armed force etc). The issues connected to the United Nations are addressed throughout the course. In addition to the theoretical basis, relevant practice of states, courts and international organizations is examined in connection with discussed topics.
The student who has passed the course is able to:
The goal of the course is to provide students with knowledge and skills to:
The course gives a concise overview of the international human rights regime and discusses contemporary problems related to the framework of human rights protection at the international, regional and constitutional level. We consider the similarities and differences between the basic human rights texts and the basic theoretical and legal approaches to protection of human rights, as well as the interplay between international and domestic implementation and protection.
The aim of the course is make students familiar with the historical development of public international law and its science and to introduce them to the philosophical and methodological problems of the discipline. As a result, students should have an in-depth knowledge of the history and theory of international law.
In seminars, various texts related to the history and theory of international law are discussed, on the basis of which the student will writes an original essay in the end. The seminar is meant for students who are interested in theory and history of international law. It is not necessarily an easy seminar because some of the readings are quite heavy.
The aim of the course is to provide an overview of the foundations of international judicial system as well as of the role, powers, functioning and outcomes (successes and failures) of major international courts and tribunals.
International judicial system has significantly gained momentum in recent decades. States are more frequently settling their disputes before international courts and have increasingly accepted their jurisdiction in advance. At the same time, there are new courts and tribunals where natural or legal persons can appear either as plaintiffs or defendants. The course examines international courts and tribunals from historical, political and legal perspectives. The focus is foremost on inter-State dispute settlement, but the course looks also at investment disputes and criminal prosecution. The course explains first the general legal framework for peaceful settlement of disputes and then turns to selected international courts and tribunals to examine the reasons for having such institutions and the specifics of their creation and functioning. Discussion cover such issues as jurisdiction, admissibility, provisional measures, applicable law, procedure, decision-making process, enforcement of decisions etc.
The aim of the course is to give an overview of the nature and historical development of international organisations as well as of their position in the contemporary system of international relations and to examine in detail the applicable legal regulation.
International organisations are the next most important subjects of international law beside States. At first, the course covers the nature and historical development of international organisations as well as their position in the contemporary system of international relations. Then, the course focuses in detail on legal issues such as the establishment, legal personality, constituent instruments, membership, powers, decisions, decision-making process and its judicial review, responsibility, privileges and immunities and dissolution of international organisations. All topics are discussed in the light of different international organisations, but the main emphasis rests upon the United Nations, the most important international organisation so far.
The aim of the course is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the history, purposes, structure, practice and challenges of the United Nations with an emphasis on legal aspects.
The course examines both legal and political aspects of the United Nations. The introductory lectures are devoted to the idea and history behind the establishment of the organisation. Then, in the seminars, the issues like the nature, relevance and legal status of the charter, structure, membership, financing, conflict prevention and peace operations, peace-building and sanctions, development and self-determination, human rights and humanitarian assistance, immunity and responsibility as well as reform proposals are discussed.
This course introduces the students to the current state of international relations as a discipline. It discusses the key practical and theoretical concerns that define the discipline, the main theoretical debates, and the key concepts that organise the disciplinary field.
The course starts with an attempt to define international relations as a discipline driven by specific practical and theoretical concerns, followed by a short introduction into the evolution of the discipline. The second, and main, part of the course includes a series of lectures and seminars which focus on the key formative concepts, such as sovereignty, anarchy and governance, agency, structure and the state, international system and international society, power, security, war and peace, conflict and cooperation, norms and identity, the role of the individual. The concepts are introduced through some of the classical texts that have shaped the discipline over the recent years; as a rule, each concept is introduced both from the rationalist and the constructivist perspective. The concluding part of the course sums it up by linking the problematic of international relations with the notion of modernity and asking whether today's practice of world politics is evolving beyond modernity or back to pre-modern times.
The course is aimed to help students develop a general understanding of the main principles of academic research and writing. Within this course, we take a closer look at the ways in which one ought to approach various processes and phenomena from the academic point of view. By way of combining theoretical lectures and practical assignments, the course is supposed to lay the foundations for the development of skills needed to carry out theoretically sound and practically meaningful academic research.
The goal of the module is to give the student a possibility to acquire in-depth knowledge in the areas of international law and human rights corresponding to his/her interests. The student chooses courses in the amount of 30 ECTS from the listed courses according to his/her preferences.
The aim of the course is to give an overview of the progressively developing discipline of international criminal law: to introduce students with respective international instruments, court practice and academic writings. To teach students to see and analyze the theoretical and practical issues of international criminal law.
The course will draw attention to the essence, principles and definitions of international crimes, as well as to various possibilities to handle them on international or internal level. The goal of the course is to give an overview of the progressively developing discipline of international criminal law: to introduce students with respective international instruments, court practice and academic writings. To teach students to see and analyze the theoretical and practical issues of international criminal law.
The course aims at providing a comprehensive understanding of the development, substance and implementation of the international law of the sea within the modern legal framework of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
The course first covers the primary sources and actors of the international law of the sea as well as its historical development from the perspective of the coastal waters. It then proceeds with a discussion on the the maritime zones: internal waters, territorial sea, archipelagic waters, contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone, continental shelf, high seas and the deep seabed. In the course of this, particular emphasis will be set on the passage rights of foreign ships and aircraft, the legal regimes of international straits (emphasis on the Baltic straits), maritime boundary delimitation, marine scientific research, marine environmental protection (emphasis on the Arctic Ocean and the Baltic Sea) as well as dispute settlement.
The course aims to give an overview of the system of international trade law with emphasis on applying the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG).
This introductory course deals with structural aspects of the international trade law system; the history of international trade law legal system; international organisations, such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the World Customs Organization, UNCITRAL etc. Specific attention is paid to the sphere and principles of application of the CISG and analysing practical cases involving international sales contracts.
The aim of the course is to give an overview of the main principles and rules of international humanitarian law. At the beginning, we explore the nature and role of international humanitarian law as well as its position in the system of international law and its relation to other branches of law. As a central topic, we examine the status of persons in armed conflict as the status determines their rights, duties and protection. Humanitarian law contains many rules on the choice of the means and methods of warfare and, likewise, on the planning and executing military operations. Then, we come to a bloc that is dedicated to the treatment of different groups of persons (civilians, wounded, sick, shipwrecked and prisoners of war). As specific topics, we discuss occupation which causes practical challenges and neutrality which concerns the status of third States. Contemporary reality demands that we pay attention also to the relevance of humanitarian law in peace operations. Finally, we explore the ways to implement and ensure respect for humanitarian law.
The aim of the course is to make students familar with the historical formation and present state of the theory of international law and human rights in Russia. Original texts from and secondary literature about the history of international law and human rights theory in Russia are read and discussed in the seminars.
The student who has passed the course is:
The aim of the course is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the legal regulation concerning the use of armed force as well as of relevant state and court practice. The historic development of the just war doctrine, the arrangements between world wars and the main aspects of the regulation under the Charter of the United Nations are discussed in the introductory lectures. Seminars focus, in detail, on specific topics and problems, for example, self-defence, different types of intervention, "war on terror" and interference in internal conflicts. Particular attention will be paid to recent events such as the intervention in Kosovo (1999), the war in Afghanistan (2001), the second war in Iraq (2003) and Russian-Georgian war (2008), the intervention in Libya (2011), civil war is Syria (2011) and insurgency in Ukraine (2014).
The purpose of this course is to develop critical thought on legal implications of advanced technologies (especially ICTs) and the development of international law in the context of increasing technology-dependence of modern life.
This course starts with a documentary of development of advanced technologies in the age of Great Modernization. It will introduce related normative developments, with specific emphasis on international information infrastructure, ICTs and selected high technologies. It will discuss the context, scope and impact of relevant norms, principles and concepts in legal theory and State practice. It will thoroughly analyze the challenges posed by the proliferation and convergence of technologies to international law. In particular, the course will review calls for new legal regimes to address the development and use of ICTs and invite discussion on general developments in international law with the view of increasing technology-dependence of social and political relations.
The aim of the course is to give an overview of institutional and regulatory framework for international protection of intellectual property rights and provide a human rights perspective on intellectual property.
The course comprehensively explores issues related to the international protection of intellectual property and institutional settings for IP protection. Particular attention is given to the intersection of human rights (right to health, free expression, privacy, etc.) and intellectual property.
The aim of the basic course on EU law is to introduce the fundamental principles of the European Union, the institutional structure and the fundamental treaties of the EU, the legal drafting procedure and the judicial system of the EU, the relationship between national law and EU law. The course deals to a large extent with the case law of the Court of Justice of the EU (COJEU) as the precedents have an essential role in the EU law. The aim of the course is to create an understanding of the EU law as a dynamic process and the natural belonging of the EU law into the national legal system. By passing the course the students will build up a ground for working with the acquis and an understanding of the legal nature of the EU. They also expand the sense of orientation in the information about the EU and the legal literature about EU, especially in the sources of the EU law.
The basic course discusses the creation, legal nature and legal foundations of the EU, the interactions of the EU with international and regional organizations, relationship between the EU law and national law, institutions of the EU and the representation of Estonia therein, the decision making and law making procedures of the EU and Estonia's participation thereof, the implementation of the EU law in Member States including Estonia and the problems that might arise, the responsibility of a Member State in case of being in breach with the EU law, the judicial system of the EU and actions and procedure in the European Court of Justice, the fundamental rights and freedoms in the EU law, the general principles of EU law.
The purpose of the course is to provide the students with the knowledge how to solve cross-border civil disputes.
The course gives an overview of the main concepts and the most important legal instruments of private international law and civil procedure. The main concepts of international civil procedure (jurisdiction, recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments) as well as the rules on conflict of laws stemming from European Union regulations are elaborated. Students get a possibility to train cross-border case-solving and apply the principles deriving from the relevant case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.
The course involves a study of human rights issues drawing mainly on material from European and international human rights law and domestic legal systems of Europe and North-America. It highlights the key controversies in modern human rights law, and the possible range of responses in different jurisdictions.
The goal of the module is to give the student a possibility to deepen and apply the knowledge of international law or human rights, acquired during the studies, and to gain practical professional skills and experience.
The student chooses one practice according to his/her preferences:
The student chooses courses in the amount of 6 ECTS from the courses offered by the University of Tartu or other universities according to his/her preferences.
The aim of the thesis is to study thoroughly issues, problems and developments related to international law and human rights, to collect theoretical and empirical materials, to analyse them using appropriate theories and methods and, as a result, to write an independent research paper.
The student who has defended the thesis is able to:
The defence of the master’s thesis is compulsory.